The -kk- verbal extension in Indo-Aryan

After the fragmentation of Sanskrit, one of the innovative features that developed across the Indo-Aryan language family are the "pleonastic" suffixes, including (but not limited to) -kk-, -ḍ-, -r-, -l(l)-, and nominal diminutives -ka- (m.) and -ikā- (f.). Pleonastic means serving no semantic purpose; basically, the consensus has been that these suffixes merely served as phonological extensions to distinguish words after the collapse of many phonotactic distinctions from Sanskrit to Middle Indo-Aryan....

May 3, 2022 · 3 min · 496 words · Me

*ll in Indo-Aryan

ṭ ~ ṭh ~ l ~ ll aṅkōṭa, aṅkōṭha, aṅkōla, aṅkōlla113 ’the small tree Alangium hexapetalum' l ~ ll *avala, *avalla819 ‘contrary’ avalīyatē, *ullīyatē833 ‘stoops; hides oneself; sticks to’ (r)dr ~ ll ārdrá, *ālla1340 ‘wet’ ārdraka, *āllaka1341 ‘ginger’ *āllabhr̥ṣṭa1408 ‘moist crop of maize’ Other *allaḍa724 ‘childish’ *allā725 ’name of a tree or plant' cullī *apa-cullī420a ‘side or secondary stove’ *ā-cullī1075 ‘small or secondary stove’ *lulla *ā-lulla1391 ‘maimed’ vallī amlavallī583 ’the plant Pythonium bulbiferum Schott'

February 21, 2022 · 1 min · 74 words · Me

New Indo-Aryan conservatisms

This is a list of Indo-Aryan lexical items whch can be traced to Indo-European yet have no preserved Sanskrit intermediaries. Certain *ārtá: MIA āṭā ‘flour’, Hindi āṭā, Punjabi āṭṭā, Romani (j)aro … (Turner: 1338) PIIr. *HārHtás ’that which is ground’, vriddhi-form of *Hr̥H-tás ‘ground’ < PIE *h₂elh₁- ’to grind’; cf. MIA āṭā, Persian ārd ‘flour’, Avestan aṣ̌a ‘ground’, Old Armenian ałam ’to grind’. Doesn’t seem that the r in the cluster has been preserved in any NIA language (Romani (j)aro has the usual t → r / V_V change), but lack of MIA dental attā ~ ātā supports the presence of r which causes retroflexion....

December 14, 2020 · 2 min · 295 words · Me